Select translations of the 14th FYP (2021-2025) and Objectives through 2035 - Part I

Shall we continue with Part II & III?

The annual Two Sessions are taking place in Beijing. Among other hot-button issues, on top of this year’s agenda is the 14th Five-Year Plan and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035.

Your Pekingnologist has uploaded the full draft of the document to Google Drive, shared it, and tweeted it out, where you can download the PDF.

The brief foreword in this document says

中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年 (2021—2025 年)规划和 2035 年远景目标纲要,根据《中共中央关于制定国民经济和社会发展第十四个五年规划和二〇三五年远景目标的建议》编制,主要阐明国家战略意图,明确政府工作重点,引导规范市场主体行为,是我国开启全面建设社会主义现代化国家 新征程的宏伟蓝图,是全国各族人民共同的行动纲领。

The 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035 for National Economic and Social Development of the People's Republic of China, prepared in accordance with the Proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, mainly explains the national strategic intent, clarifies the government's work priorities, and guides and 规范 sets the norms the behavior of market entities, and is a grand blueprint for China's new journey of building a comprehensive socialist modern state and a common action guidelines for all Chinese people of all ethnicities.

To take Beijing at its word, people with an interest or stake in China should treat the document that 阐明国家战略意图 explains the national strategic intent with utmost importance and seriousness.

Your Pekingnologist is so far unaware of a full English-language version, so he sets out to translate the parts of the document that HE thinks are of most value to the subscribers to this newsletter.

Since the document is 142 pages long, and this newsletter is a one-man shop, you will only read select translations in the first 49 pages today.

Please understand this is neither official nor authoritative, as this is a PERSONAL newsletter which does not represent the views of your Pekingnologist’s day-job employer Xinhua News Agency, let alone “China.” The parts that this newsletter omitted are NOT unimportant; the parts appearing here are NOT MORE important than the omitted parts. The selection is highly personal, and you are only relying on a Chinese journalist who’d like to think he knows what would be of interest and value to the subscribers.

There is ZERO analysis below - only translations, with the great help of DeepL, a terrific translation software. In fact, you can easily put the whole document into a good translation software to have a pretty good idea. In that sense, your Pekingnologist only serves as a filter here.

Before we start, your Pekingnologist has also uploaded the draft government work report to Google Drive, shared it, and tweeted it out. Note there is an official English-language version of that, so this newsletter won’t do similar work.

Please also note by Chinese law what’s currently available are only drafts. Only after the adopted version of the National People’s Congress are final and legally binding. So some, perhaps minor, changes will be made in between.



Some specific targets for the 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) first

国内生产总值年均增长保持在合理区间、各年度视情提出,全员劳动生产率增长高于国内生产总值增长……全社会研发经费投入年均增长 7%以上、力争投入强度高于“十三五”时期实际……常住人口城镇化率提高到 65%

Maintain average annual GDP growth within a reasonable range and propose annual targets where appropriate. Total labour productivity growth be higher than GDP growth. Average annual growth of over 7% in social investment in R&D…Increase the urbanisation rate of the resident population to 65%

Currently, the urbanization rate of the resident population, meaning the percentage of Chinese people living in urban areas, stands at just above 60%.


单位国内生产总值能源消耗和二氧化碳排放分别降低 13.5%、18%,主要污染物排放总量持续减少,森林覆盖率提高到 24.1%, 

Energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP decreased by 13.5% and 18% respectively, total emissions of major pollutants continued to decrease, and the forest coverage rate increased to 24.1%. 

The current forest coverage is 23.04%.


城镇调查失业率控制在 5.5%以内,居民人均可支配收入增长与国内生产总值增长基本同步……劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限提高到11.3 年……基本养老保险参保率提高到 95%……人均预期寿命提高1岁

The urban survey unemployment rate is kept within 5.5%, and the growth of per capita disposable income is basically synchronized with the growth of GDP ...... The average years of education of the working-age population increases to 11.3 years ...... The participation rate of basic pension insurance increases to 95% ...... Life expectancy per capita increases by 1 year


在事关国家安全和发展全局的基础核心领域,制定实施战略性科学计划和科学工程。瞄准人工智能、量子信息、集成电路、生命 健康、脑科学、生物育种、空天科技、深地深海等前沿领域,实施 一批具有前瞻性、战略性的国家重大科技项目。从国家急迫需要和 长远需求出发,集中优势资源攻关新发突发传染病和生物安全风险 防控、医药和医疗设备、关键元器件零部件和基础材料、油气勘探开发等领域关键核心技术。

In the core areas of national security and development, strategic scientific programmes and projects are to be developed and implemented. A number of major national science and technology projects of a forward-looking and strategic nature will be implemented in such frontier areas as artificial intelligence, quantum information, integrated circuits, life and health, brain science, biological breeding, air and space science and technology, and deep earth and deep sea. In view of the country's urgent needs and long-term demands, we will focus our resources on key core technologies in areas such as prevention and control of new outbreaks of infectious diseases and biosecurity risks, medicine and medical equipment, key components and basic materials, and oil and gas exploration and development.

科技前沿领域攻关 Frontiers of Science and Technology 

01 新一代人工智能


01 Next Generation Artificial Intelligence 

Breakthroughs in cutting-edge fundamental theories; research and development of special chips; construction of open source algorithm platforms such as deep learning frameworks; innovations in learning reasoning and decision making, image graphics, speech and video, natural language recognition processing, etc.

02 量子信息


02 Quantum Information 

Research and development of intra-city, intercity and free-space quantum communication technologies, development of general-purpose quantum computing prototypes and practical quantum simulators, and breakthroughs in quantum precision measurement technologies.

03 集成电路

集成电路设计工具、重点装备和高纯靶材等关键材料研发,集成电路先进工艺和绝缘栅双极型晶体管(IGBT)、微机电系统(MEMS)等特色工艺突 破,先进存储技术升级,碳化硅、氮化镓等宽禁带半导体发展。

03 Integrated Circuits 

Research and development of key materials such as integrated circuit design tools, key equipment and high-purity targets, breakthroughs in advanced integrated circuit processes and special processes such as insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), upgrading of advanced storage technologies, and development of broadband semiconductors such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride.

04 脑科学与类脑研究

脑认知原理解析,脑介观神经联接图谱绘制,脑重大疾病机理与干预研究, 儿童青少年脑智发育,类脑计算与脑机融合技术研发。

04 Brain Science and Brain-like Research 

Brain cognitive principles analysis, brain mediated neural connectivity mapping, brain major disease mechanism and intervention research, child and adolescent brain intelligence development, brain-like computing and brain-computer fusion technology development.

05 基因与生物技术

基因组学研究应用,遗传细胞和遗传育种、合成生物、生物药等技术创新, 创新疫苗、体外诊断、抗体药物等研发,农作物、畜禽水产、农业微生物等 重大新品种创制,生物安全关键技术研究。

05 Genes and Biotechnology 

Research and application of genomics, technological innovation in genetic cell and genetic breeding, synthetic biology and biopharmaceuticals, research and development of innovative vaccines, in vitro diagnostics and antibody drugs, creation of major new varieties of crops, livestock, aquatic animals and agricultural microorganisms, and research on key biosafety technologies.

06 临床医学与健康


06 Clinical Medicine and Health 

Basic research on the pathogenesis of cancer and cardiovascular, respiratory and metabolic diseases, research and development of active health intervention technologies, research and development of cutting-edge technologies such as regenerative medicine, microbiome and novel therapies, and research on key technologies for the prevention and treatment of major transmissible diseases and major chronic non-transmissible diseases.

07 深空深地深海和极地探测

宇宙起源与演化、透视地球等基础科学研究,火星环绕、小行星巡视等星际探测,新一代重型运载火箭和重复使用航天运输系统、地球深部探测装备、 深海运维保障和装备试验船、极地立体观监测平台和重型破冰船等研制,探月工程四期、蛟龙探海二期、雪龙探极二期建设。

07 Deep Space Deep Earth Deep Sea and Polar Exploration 

The origin and evolution of the universe, see through the Earth and other basic scientific research, Mars orbit, asteroid patrol and other interstellar exploration, a new generation of heavy launch vehicles and reusable space transportation systems, deep-Earth exploration equipment, deep-sea marine maintenance and equipment test ships, polar three-dimensional monitoring platform and heavy icebreakers and other development, the fourth phase of the Lunar Exploration Project, the second phase of the Jiaolong exploration of the sea, the second phase of the construction of the Snow Dragon polar exploration.

加大基础研究财政投入 力度、优化支出结构,对企业投入基础研究实行税收优惠,鼓励社会以捐赠和建立基金等方式多渠道投入,形成持续稳定投入机制, 基础研究经费投入占研发经费投入比重提高到 8%以上。

To increase the financial investment in basic research, optimize the expenditure structure, implement tax incentives for enterprises to invest in basic research, encourage the society to invest through multiple channels such as donations and funds, and form a sustainable and stable investment mechanism, and increase the proportion of basic research funding to more than 8% of R&D funding.

国家重大科技基础设施 National Major Science and Technology Infrastructure 

01 战略导向型


01 Strategically oriented 

The construction of a ground-based monitoring network for the space environment, high-precision ground-based timing system, large-scale low-speed wind tunnel, scientific observation network for the seabed, ground-based simulation device for the space environment, and comprehensive research facility for the key systems of the fusion reactor mainframe, etc.

02 应用支撑型

建设高能同步辐射光源、高效低碳燃气轮机试验装置、超重力离心模拟与试 验装置、加速器驱动嬗变研究装置、未来网络试验设施等。

02 Application-supported 

Construction of high-energy synchrotron light source, high-efficiency low-carbon gas turbine test facility, hypergravity centrifugal simulation and test facility, accelerator-driven transmutation research facility and future network test facility.

03 前瞻引领型
建设硬 X 射线自由电子激光装置、高海宇宙线观测站、综合极端条件实验装置、极深地下极低辐射本底前沿物理实验设施、精密重力测量研究设施、 强流重离子加速器装置等。

03 Forward-looking and leading

Construction of hard X-ray free electron laser device, high-sea cosmic ray observatory, comprehensive extreme conditions experiment device, deep underground very-low radiation background frontier physics experiment facility, precision gravity measurement research facility, strong current heavy ion accelerator device, etc.

04 民生改善型

建设转化医学研究设施、多模态跨尺度生物医学成像设施、模式动物表型与 遗传研究设施、地震科学实验场、地球系统数值模拟器等。

04 Livelihood Improvement 

Translational medicine research facility, multimodal cross-scale biomedical imaging facility, model animal phenotype and genetic research facility, seismic science laboratory, and Earth system numerical simulator.


Select and enable leading and top talents, and give them greater authority to decide on technical routes and using funds. Relax restrictions comprehensively on R&D staff. Develop a green channel for scientific research management. Implement a compensation policy oriented towards increasing the value of knowledge, improve the mechanism for sharing the rights and interests of scientific researchers in the results of their inventions, explore the possibility of granting scientific researchers ownership or long-term rights to use their scientific results, and increase the proportion of revenue sharing among scientific researchers. Improve the mechanism for evaluating science and technology, and optimise the science and technology award programme. Deepen the reform of the academician system.


 Improve the policy on the stay and residence for foreign high-end talents and professionals coming to China for work, scientific research and exchanges. Improve the system of granting permanent residence for foreigners in China, and explore the establishment of a skilled immigration system. Improve the system of remuneration and benefits, children's education, social security and tax concessions to provide an internationally competitive and attractive environment for overseas scientists to work in China.

实施知识产权强国战略,实行严格的知识产权保护制度,完善 知识产权相关法律法规,加快新领域新业态知识产权立法。加强知识产权司法保护和行政执法,健全仲裁、调解、公证和维权援助体系,健全知识产权侵权惩罚性赔偿制度,加大损害赔偿力度。优化专利资助奖励政策和考核评价机制,更好保护和激励高价值专利, 培育专利密集型产业。改革国有知识产权归属和权益分配机制,扩大科研机构和高等院校知识产权处置自主权。完善无形资产评估制度, 

We will implement the strategy of strengthening intellectual property rights, implement a strict intellectual property protection system, improve laws and regulations relating to intellectual property rights, and speed up legislation on intellectual property rights in new fields and new industries. We will strengthen judicial protection and administrative enforcement of intellectual property rights, improve the system of arbitration, mediation, notarization and assistance for the protection of intellectual property rights, improve the system of punitive compensation for intellectual property rights infringement, and increase the intensity of compensation for damages. Optimise patent funding and incentive policies and assessment and evaluation mechanisms to better protect and incentivise high-value patents and foster patent-intensive industries. Reform the mechanism for the ownership and distribution of rights and interests of state-owned intellectual property, and expand the autonomy of scientific research institutions and higher education institutions in the disposal of intellectual property. Improve the intangible asset appraisal system. 

实施更加开放包容、互惠共享的国际科技合作战略,更加主动融入全球创新网络。务实推进全球疫情防控和公共卫生等领域国际 科技合作,聚焦气候变化、人类健康等问题加强同各国科研人员联 合研发。主动设计和牵头发起国际大科学计划和大科学工程,发挥科学基金独特作用。加大国家科技计划对外开放力度,启动一批重大科技合作项目,研究设立面向全球的科学研究基金,实施科学家 交流计划。支持在我国境内设立国际科技组织、外籍科学家在我国科技学术组织任职。 

We will implement a more open, inclusive, and mutually beneficial international science and technology cooperation strategy, and integrate more proactively into global innovation networks. We will promote international scientific and technological cooperation in areas such as global epidemic prevention and control and public health, and strengthen joint research and development with researchers from other countries, focusing on issues such as climate change and human health. We will take the lead in designing and launching international scientific programmes and projects, and enable science funding’s unique role. We will step up efforts to open up national science and technology programmes to the outside world, launch a number of major science and technology cooperation projects, study the establishment of a global scientific research fund, and implement scientist exchange programmes. Support the establishment of international scientific and technological organisations in China and the appointment of foreign scientists to scientific and technological academic organisations in China.

推动集成电路、航空航天、船舶与海洋工程装备、机器人、先进轨道交通装 备、先进电力装备、工程机械、高端数控机床、医药及医疗设备等产业创新发展。

Promote the innovative development of integrated circuits, aerospace, ship and marine engineering equipment, robotics, advanced rail transportation equipment, advanced power equipment, construction machinery, high-end CNC machine tools, medicine and medical equipment.


Expand the scale of medium- and long-term loans and credit facilities for the manufacturing industry, increase loans for technological reform, and promote equity investment and bond financing for the manufacturing industry. Allowing all manufacturing enterprises to participate in market-based electricity trading.

制造业核心竞争力提升 Manufacturing Core Competitiveness Enhancement 

01 高端新材料 

推动高端稀土功能材料、高品质特殊钢材、高性能合金、高温合金、高纯稀有金属材料、高性能陶瓷、电子玻璃等先进金属和无机非金属材料取得突破, 加强碳纤维、芳纶等高性能纤维及其复合材料、生物基和生物医用材料研发应用,加快茂金属聚乙烯等高性能树脂和集成电路用光刻胶等电子高纯材料关键技术突破。 

01 High-end new materials 

Promote breakthroughs in advanced metallic and inorganic non-metallic materials such as high-end rare earth functional materials, high-quality special steels, high-performance alloys, high-temperature alloys, high-purity rare metallic materials, high-performance ceramics and electronic glass, strengthen the research and development of high-performance fibres such as carbon fibre, aramid and their composites, bio-based and bio-medical materials, and accelerate the development and application of high-performance resins such as metallocene polyethylene and make breakthroughs in key technologies for electronic high-purity materials in photoresists for integrated circuits.

02 重大技术装备

推进 CR450 高速度等级中国标准动车组、谱系化中国标准地铁列车、高端机床装备、先进工程机械、核电机组关键部件、邮轮、大型 LNG 船舶和深 海油气生产平台等研发应用,推动C919 大型客机示范运营和 ARJ21 支线客机系列化发展。 

02 Major technical equipment

Promote the development and application of the CR450 high speed class Chinese standard rolling stock, the spectrum of Chinese standard metro trains, high-end machine tools and equipment, advanced engineering machinery, key components of nuclear power units, cruise ships, large LNG vessels and deep sea oil and gas production platforms, and promote the demonstrative operation of the C919 large passenger aircraft and the series development of the ARJ21 regional passenger aircraft. Promote the demonstrative operation of the C919 large passenger aircraft and the development of the ARJ21 regional passenger aircrafts.

03 智能制造与机器人技术 

重点研制分散式控制系统、可编程逻辑控制器、数据采集和视频监控系统等 工业控制装备,突破先进控制器、高精度伺服驱动系统、高性能减速器等智能机器人关键技术。发展增材制造。 

03 Intelligent Manufacturing and Robotics 

Focus on the development of industrial control equipment such as decentralised control systems, programmable logic controllers, data acquisition and video monitoring systems, and breakthroughs in key technologies for intelligent robots such as advanced controllers, high-precision servo drive systems and high-performance reducers. Develop additive manufacturing.

04 航空发动机及燃气轮机 

加快先进航空发动机关键材料等技术研发验证,推进民用大涵道比涡扇发动机 CJ1000 产品研制,突破宽体客机发动机关键技术,实现先进民用涡轴发动机产业化。建设上海重型燃气轮机试验电站。 

04 Aero Engines and Gas Turbines 

Accelerate the research and development of key materials and other technologies for advanced aviation engines, promote the development of the CJ1000 turbofan engine with a large culvert ratio for civil use, make breakthroughs in key technologies for wide-body passenger aircraft engines, and the industrialisation of advanced civil turboshaft engines. Build the Shanghai heavy-duty gas turbine test power station.

05 北斗产业化应用 

突破通信导航一体化融合等技术,建设北斗应用产业创新平台,在通信、金 融、能源、民航等行业开展典型示范,推动北斗在车载导航、智能手机、穿戴设备等消费领域市场化规模化应用。 

05 Industrial application of Beidou 

Make breakthrough in communication and navigation integration and other technologies. Build an industrial innovation platform for Beidou applications, carry out typical demonstrations in the communications, financial, energy and civil aviation industries, and promote the market-oriented and large-scale application of Beidou in consumer areas such as in-vehicle navigation, smartphones and wearable devices.

06 新能源汽车和智能(网联)汽车 


06 New Energy Vehicles and Smart (Connected) Vehicles 

Make breakthroughs in key technologies such as high-safety power batteries, high-efficiency drive motors and high-performance power systems for new energy vehicles, and accelerate research and development of key components such as basic technology platforms and hardware and software systems for intelligent (internet-linked) vehicles, wire-controlled chassis and intelligent terminals.

07 高端医疗装备和创新药 


07 High-end medical equipment and innovative medicines 

Breakthroughs in core technologies such as lumpectomy robots and extracorporeal membrane lung oxygenators, and the development of high-end imaging, radiotherapy and other large-scale medical equipment and key components. We will also develop brain pacemakers, fully degradable vascular stents and other implantable interventional products, and promote the quality and upgrading of rehabilitation aids. Research and develop vaccines for major infectious diseases, and develop special drugs for malignant tumours, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Strengthen research and development of key technologies and equipment for Chinese traditional medicine.

08 农业机械装备 

开发智能型大马力拖拉机、精量(免耕)播种机、喷杆喷雾机、开沟施肥机、 高效联合收割机、果蔬采收机、甘蔗收获机、采棉机等先进适用农业机械, 发展丘陵山区农业生产高效专用农机。推动先进粮油加工装备研发和产业化。研发绿色智能养殖饲喂、环控、采集、粪污利用等装备。 

08 Agricultural machinery and equipment 

Develop advanced and applicable agricultural machinery such as intelligent high-horsepower tractors, precision (no-till) seeders, spray bar sprayers, trenching and fertilizing machines, high-efficiency combine harvesters, fruit and vegetable harvesters, sugar cane harvesters and cotton pickers, and develop high-efficiency special agricultural machinery for agricultural production in hilly and mountainous areas. Promote the development and industrialisation of advanced grain and oil processing equipment. Research and development of green and intelligent farming equipment for feeding, environmental control, collection and manure utilisation.

加快 5G 网络规模化部署,用户普及率提高到56%,推广升级千兆光纤网络。前瞻布局 6G 网络技 术储备。扩容骨干网互联节点,新设一批国际通信出入口,全面推 进互联网协议第六版(IPv6)商用部署。

Accelerate 5G network scale deployment, increase user penetration to 56% and promote upgrading of gigabit fibre network. Lay out 6G network technology reserves in a forward-looking manner. Expand backbone network interconnection nodes, establish a number of new international communication entrances and exits, and comprehensively promote the commercial deployment of Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).

加快构建全国一体化大数据中心体系,强化算力统筹智能调度,建设若干国家枢纽节点和大数据中心集群, 建设 E 级和 10E 级超级计算中心。 

Accelerate the construction of a national integrated big data center system, strengthen the coordination and intelligent scheduling of computing power, build several national hub nodes and big data center clusters, and construct E-class and 10E-class supercomputing centers.

打造全球覆盖、高效运行的通信、导航、遥感空间基础设施体系,建设商业航天发射场。加快交通、能源、市政等传统基础设施 数字化改造,加强泛在感知、终端联网、智能调度体系建设。发挥市场主导作用,打通多元化投资渠道,构建新型基础设施标准体系。 

We will build a space infrastructure system for communication, navigation and remote sensing with global coverage and efficient operation, and construct commercial space launch sites. Accelerate the digital transformation of traditional infrastructure such as transportation, energy and municipalities, and strengthen the construction of a system for pervasive sensing, terminal networking and intelligent dispatching. Enable the market to play a leading role, open up diversified investment channels and build a standard system for new infrastructure.

在类脑智能、量子信息、基因技术、未来网络、深海空天开发、 氢能与储能等前沿科技和产业变革领域,组织实施未来产业孵化与加速计划,谋划布局一批未来产业。

In the areas of brain-like intelligence, quantum information, genetic technology, future networks, deep sea, air and space development, hydrogen energy and energy storage, and other frontier technologies and industrial changes. Organize and implement a future industry incubation and acceleration programme, plan and lay out a number of future industries.


Improve the comprehensive transport corridors, strengthen the construction of strategic main corridors of leaving Xinjiang and entering Tibet, in the central and western regions, along the rivers, along the coast and along the borders; orderly promote the upgrading and expansion of capacity-constrained corridors, and strengthen interconnection with neighbouring countries.

The construction of the Ya'an-Linzhi section of the Sichuan-Tibet Railway and the railways from Yining to Aksu, Jiuquan to Ejina and Ruoqiang to Lop Nor, the advance work on the railways from Rikaze to Jilong and Hotan to Rikaze, the opening of the G219 and G331 lines along the border road, and the upgrading of the G318 line of the Sichuan-Tibet Highway.

We will build world-class airport clusters in Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau-Great Bay Area and Chengdu-Chongqing, implement the renovation and expansion of international hub airports in Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Kunming, Xi'an, Chongqing, Urumqi and Harbin, and build new airports in Xiamen, Dalian and Sanya. We will also build regional airports such as Shuozhou, Jiaxing, Ruijin, Qianbei and Alar, and add more than 30 new civil transport airports.

推进能源革命,建设清洁低碳、安全高效的能源体系,提高能源供给保障能力。加快发展非化石能源,坚持集中式和分布式并举, 大力提升风电、光伏发电规模,加快发展东中部分布式能源,有序发展海上风电,加快西南水电基地建设,安全稳妥推动沿海核电建设,建设一批多能互补的清洁能源基地,非化石能源占能源消费总量比重提高到 20%左右。推动煤炭生产向资源富集地区集中,合理 控制煤电建设规模和发展节奏,推进以电代煤。有序放开油气勘探开发市场准入,加快深海、深层和非常规油气资源利用,推动油气 增储上产。因地制宜开发利用地热能。提高特高压输电通道利用率。 

Promote the energy revolution, build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system, and improve the capacity to guarantee energy supply. Accelerate the development of non-fossil energy, adhere to both centralized and distributed forms, vigorously increase the scale of wind power and photovoltaic power generation, accelerate the development of distributed energy in the east and central regions, develop offshore wind power in an orderly manner, accelerate the construction of hydropower bases in the southwest, promote the construction of coastal nuclear power in a safe and steady manner, and build a number of multi-energy complementary clean energy bases. Promote the proportion of non-fossil energy to total energy consumption to about 20%. Promote the concentration of coal production in resource-rich areas, reasonably control the scale and pace of coal power construction and development, and promote the use of electricity instead of coal (in providing heating). The market access for oil and gas exploration and development should be liberalised in an orderly manner, the use of deep-sea, deep-seated and unconventional oil and gas resources should be accelerated, and the increase in oil and gas reserves and production should be promoted. Develop and utilise geothermal energy in accordance with local conditions. Increase the utilisation rate of extra-high voltage transmission channels.

完善煤炭跨区域 运输通道和集疏运体系,加快建设天然气主干管道,完善油气互联 互通网络。 

We will improve the inter-regional transportation corridors and the collection and distribution system for coal, accelerate the construction of natural gas trunk pipelines and improve the interconnection network for oil and gas.

建设雅鲁藏布江下游水电基地。建设金沙江上下游、雅砻江流域、黄河上游和几字湾、河西走廊、新疆、冀北、松辽等清洁能源基地,建设广东、福建、 浙江、江苏、山东等海上风电基地。 

Building hydropower bases in the lower reaches of the Yarlung Tsangpo River. Construction of clean energy bases in the upper and lower reaches of the Jinsha River, the Yalong River basin, the upper reaches of the Yellow River and U-shaped bays, the Hexi Corridor, Xinjiang, Hebei and Songliao, as well as offshore wind power bases in Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Shandong.


建成华龙一号、国和一号、高温气冷堆示范工程,积极有序推进沿海三代核电建设。推动模块式小型堆、60 万千瓦级商用高温气冷堆、海上浮动式核 动力平台等先进堆型示范。建设核电站中低放废物处置场,建设乏燃料后处理厂。开展山东海阳等核能综合利用示范。核电运行装机容量达到 7000万 千瓦。 

Coastal Nuclear Power 

Complete demonstration projects for Hualong 1, Guohe 1 and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors, and actively and orderly promote the construction of third-generation nuclear power along the coast. Promote the demonstration of advanced reactor types such as modular small-scale reactors, 600,000-kilowatt-class commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors and offshore floating nuclear power platforms. Construct low and medium-level waste disposal sites for nuclear power plants, and build spent fuel reprocessing plants. Demonstration of comprehensive use of nuclear energy, such as in Haiyang, Shandong Province. Installed nuclear power capacity reaches 70 million kilowatts.


新建中俄东线境内段、川气东送二线等油气管道。建设石油储备重大工程。 加快中原文 23、辽河储气库群等地下储气库建设。 

Oil and gas storage and transportation capacity 

New construction of oil and gas pipelines such as the domestic section of the China-Russia East Line and the second line of Sichuan-East Gas Transmission. Construct major projects for oil reserves. Accelerate the construction of underground gas storage reservoirs such as Zhongyuanwen 23 and Liaohe Gas Storage Complex.

更大力度吸引和利用外资,有序推进电信、互联网、教育、 文化、医疗等领域相关业务开放。全面优化外商投资服务,加强外 商投资促进和保护,发挥重大外资项目示范效应,支持外资加大中高端制造、高新技术、传统制造转型升级、现代服务等领域和中西部地区投资,支持外资企业设立研发中心和参与承担国家科技计划 项目。鼓励外资企业利润再投资。坚持企业主体,创新境外投资方 式,优化境外投资结构和布局,提升风险防范能力和收益水平。完 善境外生产服务网络和流通体系,加快金融、咨询、会计、法律等 生产性服务业国际化发展,推动中国产品、服务、技术、品牌、标准走出去。 支持企业融入全球产业链供应链,提高跨国经营能力和 水平。引导企业加强合规管理,防范化解境外政治、经济、安全等各类风险。推进多双边投资合作机制建设,健全促进和保障境外投资政策和服务体系,推动境外投资立法。

We will make greater efforts to attract and utilise foreign investment, and orderly promote the opening up of businesses in telecommunications, the Internet, education, culture and healthcare. Optimise foreign investment services comprehensively, strengthen the promotion and protection of foreign business investment, bring into play the demonstration effect of major foreign investment projects, support foreign investment in areas such as medium- and high-end manufacturing, high technology, transformation and upgrading of traditional manufacturing, modern services and in the central and western regions, and support foreign enterprises in setting up R&D centres and participating in national science and technology programmes. Encourage reinvestment of profits of foreign-funded enterprises. The Government should adhere to the principle of letting the enterprises be the main entities, innovate the way of overseas investment, optimise the structure and layout of overseas investment, and enhance the ability to prevent risks and improve the level of returns. Improve overseas production and service networks and distribution systems, accelerate the international development of productive services such as finance, consulting, accounting and legal services, and promote the export of Chinese products, services, technologies, brands and standards. Support enterprises to integrate into the global industrial supply chain and improve their ability and level of transnational operations. Guide enterprises to strengthen compliance management and prevent and resolve political, economic, security and other risks abroad. Promote the construction of multilateral and bilateral investment cooperation mechanisms, improve policies and service systems to promote and protect overseas investment, and promote legislation on overseas investment.


Improve the policy on duty-free shops in the cities and plan and build a number of duty-free shops with Chinese characteristics in the cities.


In order to serve major national strategies, we will implement major projects such as the Sichuan-Tibet Railway, the New Western Land and Sea Corridor, the national water network, the development of hydropower downstream of the Yarlung Tsangpo River, interplanetary exploration, and the industrialisation of Beidou. 

聚焦高端芯片、操作系统、人工智能关键算法、传感器等关键领域,加快推进基础理论、基础算法、装备材料等研发突破与迭代应用。加强通用处理器、云计算系统和软件核心技术一体化研发。 加快布局量子计算、量子通信、神经芯片、DNA 存储等前沿技术, 加强信息科学与生命科学、材料等基础学科的交叉创新,支持数字 技术开源社区等创新联合体发展,完善开源知识产权和法律体系, 鼓励企业开放软件源代码、硬件设计和应用服务。 

Focus on key areas such as high-end chips, operating systems, key artificial intelligence algorithms and sensors, and accelerate breakthroughs in the research and development of basic theories, basic algorithms and equipment materials and their iterative application. Strengthen the research and development of general-purpose processors, cloud computing systems and software core technology integration. Accelerate the development of cutting-edge technologies such as quantum computing, quantum communication, neural chips and DNA storage, strengthen cross-innovation between information science and basic disciplines such as life science and materials, support the development of digital technology open source communities and other innovation consortia, improve the open source intellectual property and legal system, and encourage enterprises to open up software source code, hardware design and application services.

培育壮大人工智能、大数据、区块链、云计算、网络安全等新 兴数字产业,提升通信设备、核心电子元器件、关键软件等产业水 平。构建基于 5G 的应用场景和产业生态,在智能交通、智慧物流、 智慧能源、智慧医疗等重点领域开展试点示范。鼓励企业开放搜索、 电商、社交等数据,发展第三方大数据服务产业。促进共享经济、平台经济健康发展。

Foster and grow emerging digital industries such as artificial intelligence, big data, blockchain, cloud computing and cyber security, and enhance the level of industries such as communication equipment, core electronic components and key software. Build 5G-based application scenarios and industrial ecology, and carry out pilot demonstrations in key areas such as intelligent transportation, smart logistics, smart energy, and smart healthcare. Encourage enterprises to open up search, e-commerce and social data, and develop third-party big data service industries. Promote the healthy development of the sharing economy and platform economy.

数字经济重点产业 Major Industries in the Digital Economy

01 云计算 

加快云操作系统迭代升级,推动超大规模分布式存储、弹性计算、数据虚拟 隔离等技术创新,提高云安全水平。以混合云为重点培育行业解决方案、系 统集成、运维管理等云服务产业。 

01 Cloud Computing 

Accelerate the iteration and upgrading of cloud operating systems, promote technological innovations such as ultra-large scale distributed storage, elastic computing and virtual data isolation, and improve cloud security. Focus on hybrid clouds to cultivate industry solutions, system integration, operation and maintenance management and other cloud service industries.

02 大数据 


02 Big Data 

Promote technological innovation in big data collection, cleaning, storage, mining, analysis and visualization algorithms, cultivate the whole life cycle industrial system of data collection, labeling, storage, transmission, management and application, and improve the big data standard system.

03 物联网 

推动传感器、网络切片、高精度定位等技术创新,协同发展云服务与边缘计 算服务,培育车联网、医疗物联网、家居物联网产业。 

03 Internet of Things 

Promote technological innovation in sensors, network slicing and high-precision positioning, develop cloud services and edge computing services in collaboration, and foster the Internet of Vehicles, Medical Internet of Things and Home Internet of Things industries.

04 工业互联网 

打造自主可控的标识解析体系、标准体系、安全管理体系,加强工业软件研 发应用,培育形成具有国际影响力的工业互联网平台,推进“工业互联网+ 智能制造”产业生态建设。 

04 Industrial Internet 

We will build an independent and controllable identification resolution system, standard system and security management system, strengthen the research and development of industrial software applications, foster the formation of industrial Internet platforms with international influence, and promote the construction of the industrial ecology of "industrial Internet + intelligent manufacturing".

05 区块链 

推动智能合约、多重共识算法、非对称加密算法、分布式容错机制等技术创 新,以联盟链为重点发展区块链服务平台和金融科技、供应链管理、政务服 务等领域应用方案,完善监管机制。 

05 Blockchain 

Promote technological innovations such as smart contracts, multiple consensus algorithms, asymmetric encryption algorithms and distributed fault tolerance mechanisms, develop blockchain service platforms and application solutions in areas such as financial technology, supply chain management and government services with a focus on alliance chains, and improve regulatory mechanisms.

06 人工智能 

建设重点行业人工智能数据集,发展算法推理训练场景,推进智能医疗装备、 智能运载工具、智能识别系统等智能产品设计与制造,推动通用化和行业性人工智能开放平台建设。 

06 Artificial Intelligence 

Build artificial intelligence data sets for key industries, develop algorithmic reasoning training scenarios, promote the design and manufacture of intelligent products such as intelligent medical equipment, intelligent delivery tools and intelligent identification systems, and promote the construction of generalised and industry-specific open platforms for artificial intelligence.

07 虚拟现实和增强现实 

推动三维图形生成、动态环境建模、实时动作捕捉、快速渲􏰨处理等技术创 新,发展虚拟现实整机、感知交互、内容采集制作等设备和开发工具软件、 行业解决方案。 

07 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality 

Promote technological innovation in 3D graphics generation, dynamic environment modelling, real-time motion capture and rapid rendering processing, and develop equipment and development tools and software for virtual reality machines, perceptual interaction and content acquisition and production, as well as industry solutions.


Expand the safe and orderly opening of basic public information data, explore the integration of public data services into the public service system, build a unified national public data opening platform and development and utilization port, and give priority to promoting the opening of high-value data sets such as business registration and supervision, health, transportation and meteorology to society. Carry out pilot projects to authorize the operation of government data, and encourage third parties to deepen the mining and utilization of public data.

推进网络空间国际交流与合作,推动以联合国为主渠道、以联合国宪章为基本原则制定数字和网络空间国际规则。推动建立多 边、民主、透明的全球互联网治理体系,建立更加公平合理的网络 基础设施和资源治理机制。积极参与数据安全、数字货币、数字税 等国际规则和数字技术标准制定。推动全球网络安全保障合作机制 建设,构建保护数据要素、处置网络安全事件、打击网络犯罪的国 际协调合作机制。向欠发达国家提供技术、设备、服务等数字援助, 使各国共享数字时代红利。积极推进网络文化交流互鉴。 

Promote international exchanges and cooperation in cyberspace, and promote the formulation of international rules on digital and cyberspace with the United Nations as the main channel and the Charter of the United Nations as the basic principle. Promote the establishment of a multilateral, democratic and transparent global Internet governance system, and establish a fairer and more reasonable governance mechanism for network infrastructure and resources. Actively participate in the formulation of international rules and digital technology standards for data security, digital currency and digital taxation. Promote the construction of a global cybersecurity cooperation mechanism and build an international coordination and cooperation mechanism for protecting data elements, handling cybersecurity incidents and combating cybercrime. Provide digital assistance to less developed countries in terms of technology, equipment and services, so that countries can share the dividends of the digital age. Actively promote the exchange and mutual appreciation of cyber culture.


Promote state-owned enterprises to improve a modern system of enterprises with Chinese characteristics 

坚持党对国有企业的全面领导,促进加强党的领导和完善公司治理相统一,加快建立权责法定、权责透明、协调运转、有效制衡的公司治理机制。加强董事会建设,落实董事会职权,使董事会成为企业经营决策主体。按照完善治理、强化激励、突出主业、提高效率的要求,深化国有企业混合所有制改革,深度转换经营机制, 对混合所有制企业探索实行有别于国有独资、全资公司的治理机制和监管制度。推行经理层成员任期制和契约化管理,完善市场化薪酬分配机制,灵活开展多种形式的中长期激励。  

We will adhere to the Party's overall leadership of state-owned enterprises, promote the unification of strengthening the Party's leadership and improving corporate governance, and accelerate the establishment of a corporate governance mechanism with legal powers and responsibilities, transparent powers and responsibilities, coordinated operation, and effective checks and balances. Strengthen the construction of the board of directors, make sure its powers and responsibilities are implemented, and make the board of directors the main body of business decisions. In accordance with the requirements of improving governance, strengthening incentives, highlighting the main business and improving efficiency, deepen the reform of mixed ownership of state-owned enterprises, deeply transform the mechanism of running businesses, and explore the implementation of a governance mechanism and regulatory system for mixed ownership enterprises that is different from that of 国有独资 enterprise solely funded by the State and 全资公司 wholly state-owned companies. We will implement a tenure system and contractual management for members of the management team, improve the market-based remuneration allocation mechanism, and flexibly implement various forms of medium- and long-term incentives.

(Please ask your lawyers on the difference between 国有独资 and (国有)全资公司 both of which are state-owned but apparently differently categorized within some Chinese legal context. )

健全支持民营企业发展的法治环境、政策环境和市场环境,依法平等保护民营企业产权和企业家权益。保障民营企业依法平等使 用资源要素、公开公平公正参与竞争、同等受到法律保护。进一步放宽民营企业市场准入,破除招投标等领域各种壁垒。创新金融支持民营企业政策工具,健全融资增信支持体系,对民营企业信用评 级、发债一视同仁,降低综合融资成本。完善促进中小微企业和个体工商户发展的政策体系,加大税费优惠和信贷支持力度。构建亲清政商关系,建立规范化政企沟通渠道。健全防范和化解拖欠中小企业账款长效机制。

We will improve the rule of law, policy environment and market environment to support the development of private enterprises, and equally protect the property rights of private enterprises and the rights and interests of entrepreneurs in accordance with the law. Private enterprises are guaranteed equal access to resources and factors, open, fair and equitable competition, and equal protection under the law. Further liberalise market access for private enterprises and break down barriers in areas such as tendering. Innovate financial support tools for private enterprises, improve the credit enhancement support system for financing, treat private enterprises equally in terms of credit rating and debt issuance, and reduce comprehensive financing costs. Improve the policy system to promote the development of small, medium and micro enterprises and 个体户 individual business housholds, and increase tax concessions and credit support. Build close but clean business relations and establish standardised channels of communication between government and enterprises. Improve the long-term mechanism for preventing and resolving arrears in payments to SMEs.

鼓励民营企业改革创新,提升经营能力和管理水平。引导有条件的民营企业建立现代企业制度。支持民营企业开展基础研究和科 技创新、参与关键核心技术研发和国家重大科技项目攻关。完善民 营企业参与国家重大战略实施机制。推动民营企业守法合规经营, 鼓励民营企业积极履行社会责任、参与社会公益和慈善事业。弘扬 企业家精神,实施年轻一代民营企业家健康成长促进计划。 

Encourage private enterprises to reform and innovate, and improve their management capabilities and standards. Guide private enterprises in the right conditions to establish a modern enterprise system. Support private enterprises to carry out basic research and innovation in science and technology, participate in the research and development of key core technologies and tackle major national science and technology projects. Improve the mechanism for private enterprises to participate in the implementation of major national strategies. Promote law-abiding and compliant operation of private enterprises and encourage them to actively fulfil their social responsibilities and participate in social welfare and charitable causes. Promote the entrepreneurial spirit and implement a programme to promote the healthy growth of the younger generation of private entrepreneurs.

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第二十章 建设高标准市场体系

Chapter 20 Establish a High-Standard Market System

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