This newsletter has been publishing select translations of the draft 14th Five-Year Plan (2021-2025) and the Long-Range Objectives Through the Year 2035. You are welcome to read Part I and Part II, which include lengthy disclaimers that also apply to this third and final part.
The full Chinese-language draft is below - for other documents, check the Twitter thread
Please again note this is a PERSONAL translation - the omitted parts are NOT unimportant; the parts appearing are NOT MORE important than the omitted parts - this newsletter simply doesn’t have the resources to mount a full translation.
A deeper-level use of the document would be comparing it to the 13th FYP and map out the consistencies and differences, and trying to figure out the rationale and message behind them, something beyond this newsletter now as well.
Jiang Jiang, Your Pekingnologist’s friend and colleague, graciously agreed to undertake selection and translation in Part III. So JJ will have the full byline, in addition to an MBA degree from UVA’s Darden and a real-name Twitter account. Some notes are written by JJ, some are by your Pekingnologist.
Chapter 42: Actively participate in the reform and construction of the global governance system
Hold high the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and win-win strategy, adhere to the independent and peaceful foreign policy, promote the building of a new type of international relations, and promote the global governance system to become more just and reasonable.
Section I Maintain and improve multilateral economic governance mechanisms
Uphold the multilateral trading system, actively participate in the reform of the World Trade Organization, and resolutely safeguard the status of a developing member. Promote the G20 to perform international economic cooperation functions, constructively participate in economic governance cooperation in APEC, BRICS, and other economic governance and cooperation mechanisms, and put forward more Chinese initiatives and solutions. Promote the deepening of governance reforms in major multilateral financial institutions, support the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the New Development Bank to play a better role, and improve the ability to participate in international financial governance. Promote communication and coordination of international macroeconomic policy, build international cooperation platforms, jointly maintain the smooth flow of global industrial supply chains and the stability of global financial markets, and make joint efforts to promote world economic growth. Promote the development of rules for economic governance in emerging sectors.
Section II: Building a high-standard network of free trade zones
Implement the free trade zone upgrading strategy and build a high-standard global network of free trade zones. Optimize the layout of free trade zones, promote the implementation of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), accelerate the negotiation process of the China-Japan-ROK Free Trade Agreement, and steadily promote the construction of the Asia-Pacific Free Trade Area. Upgrade the level of construction of free trade zones, actively consider joining the Comprehensive and Progressive Trans-Pacific Partnership (CPTPP), and promote the negotiation of more high-standard free trade agreements and regional trade agreements.
Note: China “actively considering joining the CPTPP” is no longer news anymore, and no wonder it’s in the top-level development plan.
Section III Actively create a favorable external environment
Actively develop global partnerships, promote coordination and cooperation among major countries, deepen relations with neighboring countries, and strengthen solidarity and cooperation with developing countries. Adhere to the principles of multilateralism and extensive consultation, joint contribution, and shared benefits, uphold the international system with the United Nations at its core and the international order based on international law, and jointly address global challenges. Actively participate in international cooperation in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases and promote the building a community of shared health for mankind. Deepen the reform of the overseas aid system and mechanism, optimize the layout of overseas aid, provide assistance to developing countries, especially the least developed countries, within China’s capabilities, and strengthen overseas cooperation and assistance in the fields of health care, science and technology, education, green development, poverty reduction, human resources development, and emergency humanitarian assistance. Actively implement the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Note: Today’s news comes to mind.
Raise the gross enrollment rate of high school education to over 92%. Regulate after-school training. Improve the mechanism for guaranteeing inclusive preschool education, special education, and specialized education, and increase the gross preschool education enrollment rate to more than 90%. Improve the quality and level of education in ethnic areas, and increase the promotion of the common national language.
Note: Latest news in the city of Beijing already showing a crackdown on after-school training.
Increase the gross enrollment rate of higher education to 60% ...... Accelerate the cultivation of badly-needed talents in science, engineering, agriculture, and medicine ...... Steadily expand the scale of professional degree graduate students ...... Promote the revitalization of higher education in the central and western regions
Support high-level comprehensive universities to carry out teacher education, improve the publicly-funded education system for students for professional teaching, and promote the reform of exempting teaching qualification examination for graduate students majoring in education and publicly-funded students trained for teaching.
Adhere to the principle of public welfare in education, increase investment in education, focus on inclusive kindergartens in areas with concentrated population influx, rural areas, and the "three regions and three prefectures", build and expand 20,000 kindergartens, and increase the number of inclusive enrollment seats by more than 4 million.
Note: The “三区三州” "three regions and three prefectures" include the Tibet Autonomous Region, southern parts of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture in Gansu Province, which are regarded as the hardest nuts to crack in China’s poverty reduction campaign.
Ensure the characteristics of public welfare in the basic medical and health care services, improve the quality and efficiency of medical care, and expand the supply of medical service resources with public medical institutions as the mainstay and non-public medical institutions as the supplement.
Note: One recent piece of news comes to mind. On March 6, President Xi Jinping said the following when he visited members from the medical and educational sectors of the CPPCC at its recently concluded annual session
In the fight against the coronavirus epidemic, public hospitals have taken on the most urgent, dangerous, and arduous medical treatment work, playing the role of the main force. We will increase the building of public medical and health institutions ......
Accelerate the review and approval of drugs and medical devices for urgent clinical needs and for the treatment of rare diseases, and promote the approval of new drugs and medical devices for urgent clinical needs which have been approved in the overseas market as soon as possible.
Note: Business opportunities for pharmaceutical and medical equipment manufacturers.
Improve the quality and scale of medical and nursing personnel training, expand the scale of physicians in department which are in shortage of talents, such as pediatrics and general practice, and increase the number of registered nurses per 1,000 population to 3.8. Implement regional registration of physicians and promote multi-agency practice.
(Note: There is also an entire paragraph promoting Chinese Traditional Medicine.)
Ensure time for physical education and extracurricular exercise in schools, and carry out national physical fitness monitoring and intervention with a focus on youth. Put equal emphasis on cultural education and professional sports training, strengthen the development of reserve talents for competitive sports, improve the competitiveness of key sports, consolidate the country’s traditional advantages, explore the development path of soccer, basketball, and volleyball with Chinese characteristics, continue to promote the development of ice and snow sports, and develop professional sports events with world influence. Expand sports consumption, develop fitness and leisure, outdoor sports, and other sports industries. Organize the Beijing Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games and the Hangzhou Asian Games, etc.
Promote efforts to realize appropriate fertility levels
Enhance the inclusiveness of the fertility policy, promote the integration of the fertility policy with economic and social policies, reduce the families’ burden of childbirth, child-raising, and education, and tap the potential of the fertility policy. Improve policies on child rearing, youth development, elderly support, and care for the sick and disabled, as well as the maternity leave system, and explore the implementation of parental leave. Improve the whole process of prenatal and ostnatal care services, strengthen progestation and maternity health services, and improve the quality of the newborn population. Establish and improve a comprehensive support and protection system for families with special difficulties in family planning. Reform and improve the population statistics and monitoring system, and closely monitor the fertility situation. Deepen research on population development strategies and improve the comprehensive decision-making mechanism on population and development.
Note: Falling birth rates and changing demography are increasingly recognized as a big problem.
Chapter 48 Optimize income distribution structure
Ensure that the growth of residents' income and economic growth are basically in the same pace, ensure that the increase of labor remuneration and the increase of labor productivity are basically in the same pace, ensure the continuous increase of the income of low-income groups, the expansion of middle-income groups, and the more active action to promote common prosperity.
Note: “Common prosperity” has been lifted to a new high since the Fifth Plenary Session of the Central Committee. Xi said to senior cadres on Jan. 11
Achieving common prosperity is not only an economic issue but also a major political issue related to the Party's governing foundation.
For more on this, see The "Spirit" of the 5th Plenum 五中全会精神, my Feb. 25 Pekingnology newsletter.
Innovate more financial products that meet the needs of family wealth management
Note: Private banking and wealth management professionals take notice.
Section 1 Promote gender equality and the overall development of women
Ensure a deep implementation of the Women's Development Program, continue to improve the environment for women's development, and promote women's equal exercise of rights in accordance with the law, participation in economic and social development, and sharing the fruits of development.
Note: Gender issues have become one of the hottest buttons on Chinese social media these days. Putting plans like this into concrete actions will hopefully bring down the gender barriers seen by many as traditional, practical, institutional, and structural.
Section 3 Strengthens family building
Give full play to the role of the family, family education, family style in grass-roots social governance.
第十五篇 统筹发展和安全 建设更高水平的平安中国
Part XV Integrate development and security to build a higher level of peaceful and safe China
Embrace the holistic national security concept, implement the national security strategy, maintain and shape national security, coordinate traditional and non-traditional security, integrate security development in all areas and the whole process of national development, prevent and resolve various risks affecting the modernization process of China, and build a firm national security shield.
Note: There is an entire chapter (Chapter 15) about SECURITY in the plan. Late coming subscribers are invited to read Politburo group-studies national security: what Xi says on "holistic" NatSec could mean in the Dec. 13 Pekingnology newsletter.
Section III Implement Financial Security Strategy
Improve the management framework for cross-border capital flows, strengthen regulatory cooperation, and improve capabilities of risk prevention, control and response under open conditions. Strengthen the construction of RMB cross-border payment systems, promote the security and control of core technologies of financial industry information technology, and maintain the security of financial infrastructure.
Accelerate the modernization of national defense and military to achieve the unity of a rich country and a strong army
…comprehensively strengthen military training and preparation, and improve the strategic ability to defend national sovereignty, security, and development interests. Ensure the PLA' centenary goal is achieved by 2027.
Note: Regarding the PLA's centenary goal for 2027, there is a more detailed explanation (in Chinese) from the spokesperson with the Ministry of Defense in late November. That Q&A didn’t exactly say what is exactly the goal for 2027, but four aspects 对“确保二〇二七年实现建军百年奋斗目标”的极端重要性 of the extreme importance of "ensuring the PLA' centenary goal is achieved by 2027” are somewhat helpful.
This newsletter is already too long so just the four aspects in the Q&A in extreme brevity
accelerating the integrated development of mechanization, informatization, and intelligentization.
accelerating the modernization of military doctrine, the modernization of military organization form, the modernization of military personnel, and the modernization of weapons and equipment.
adherence to quality first and priority of efficiency.
promoting the simultaneous improvement of national defense strength and economic strength.
Latecoming subscribers are invited to read the Dec. 8 Pekingnology newsletter, highlighting Once-in-a-generation change in PLA guidelines: intelligentization added, mechanization declared "basically accomplished."
Chapter 61 To maintain the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao
Section II Support Hong Kong and Macao to better integrate into the overall development of the country
Strengthen exchanges and cooperation between the Mainland, Hong Kong and Macao in various fields, improve policies and measures to facilitate the development and living of Hong Kong and Macao residents in the Mainland, strengthen education on the Constitution and the Basic Law, education on national conditions, and enhance the national awareness and patriotism of compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao.
Note: One of the biggest news out of the ongoing Two Sessions is the changes made to the law(s) on Hong Kong, based on the principle of "patriots administering Hong Kong." If you follow the news closely, “enhance the national awareness and patriotism of compatriots in Hong Kong and Macao” is not exactly new in recent years, after Beijing apparently identified it as a fundamental cure to HK’s ills.
Chapter 62 Promote the peaceful development of cross-strait relations and the national reunification
Stick to the one-China principle and the 1992 Consensus and act based on the well-being of compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Strait, promote the peaceful development of cross-strait relations, integration and development, retain a high degree of vigilance to and resolutely deter separatist activities seeking "Taiwan independence."
Note: It speaks for itself.
Support Fujian to explore new ways of cross-strait integration and development, and accelerate the construction of cross-strait demonstration areas of integration and development.
Note: Fujian is on the other side of the Taiwan Strait facing Taiwan. For many years, Fujian’s GDP lagged behind Taiwan’s despite being much larger in land size (nearly 3 times) and boasting more population (40 million v. 23 million). In 2019, Fujian says its GDP surpassed Taiwan.